Here in the heart of the favela, territory is shared at the cost of daily controls of all incoming and outgoing traffic, and access to another territory is a matter of constant negotiation. The example is undoubtedly extreme. Yet it clearly illustrates the questions we have been asking ourselves for two years now on the issue of appeasing pedestrian mobility in the 21st century 3. Although environmental issues widely publicize thinking on the reorganization of urban mobility in our Western societies, the debate on the necessary pacification of the street and favelas in emerging societies like Brazil are clearly fuelled by feedback in hygienist, security-conscious terms.
All these are societal questions that the issue of ambiance can address. In its second edition, in November , it dealt with the issue of conflict and dissension in public areas. This journey was in part motivated by Le Corbusier - his first employer from to - who wanted his young employee to carry out surveys and sketches for him of a vernacular architecture he admired. He sketches the many irrigation and water conveyancing systems that are essential to local life wells, dams, reservoirs, diversions, networks.
These drawings also give information on the precise distribution of the merchants and their products on the marketplace: dates, goats, camels, cheese, firewood, timber, fruit and vegetables, fabrics, etc. Just the evocation of these goods makes their smells and colours almost palpable. Matching the diversity of the traders and customers portrayed, it gives one an idea of the atmospheres that one imagines reigned there.
On this marketplace, he spots the modest praying area, no longer there, and draws the singular way in which the animals are tethered, in bunches, as the subsequent photographs of Manuelle Roche show. Several drawings of buildings show the simplicity of the architecture and painstakingly describe the commonplace arrangements for shielding oneself from the desert sun: porticos and corbelled constructions affording shade, virtually solid walls with tiny openings, etc.
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In the thirties, mechanization had not yet reached the valley, and people moved around mainly on foot, on donkeys and camels. For this reason, the notion of atmosphere can also be illuminated from an analysis of urban, or rather urbanities, because the atmosphere showcases a number of sensitivities. Remember, after Pascal Amphoux that atmosphere is "indescribable", but rather refers to the dimensions of sensitivity, alterity human, material and space and temporality.
As part of my work, I study sports practices edutainment Parkour, Street Golf, Caving urban, urban climbing, etc. The sensitivity to space is up here. How to explain for instance that the tracer the one who practices parkour insists on "being able to jump from building [their] introduces the third dimension of this space [the] surrounding this space before [the] first jump [they] did not consider that as a meal?
While sport sociologists agree that the changing nature of sports facilities, it is not by chance. Areas of practice are diversifying under the weight of the sensitive and environmental. Practices emerging edutainment sports jumping stilts, parkour, dancing, climbing, golf, orienteering, etc. Here, for example, we can see, respectively, a caver, a golfer, a jumper and then a draw experience from a premise as the underground network, the street, the building or the square. We perceive how the concept of environment can also be mobilized in sports science as it crystallizes the dimensions we say sensitive, but also time-marking the passage of representations to expressions - in edutainment appropriation of urban public space.
In this work, the concept of atmosphere describes an urban plain streets, buildings, parks, gardens, street furniture, etc. This movement of differentiation, proposing "an alternative to other approaches to the urban environment," says one ludo-sensitive urban setting that is critical of what is there before our eyes.
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Thus, travel and strolling on sidewalks, benches, stairs, walls and retaining walls, roofs or other springboards "natural" give these activities a purpose of both aesthetic and energy. The objective is to develop efficient movement, functional and useful for individual development and its adaptation in the urban environment.
The third purpose is so urban, meaning that the practitioner builds a discourse on the city exerted over public space, an athletic form of deliberation. The change of atmosphere - to use the analysis of V. Nahoum-Grappe - understood as a social experience of space and time, then, is the guiding principle behind these practitioners to invest the city of their body lines and dizzying.
Amphoux, P. Capron, G. Presses Universitaires du Mirail, pp. Lebreton, F. Cultures urbaines et sportives alternatives. Amphoux, op. Thibaud, J-P.
In: Communications , 75, Le sens du regard. Such a definition allows one to understand the spatiality of a given space as the ensemble of potential "affordances" 2 it offers, according to the perceiver's motor abilities.
Space becomes morphologically meaningful through the motion it allows us 3 ; it appears to us as a constant invitation to movement, as a partner in a dialogue that takes the shape of a promenade. Ambiance is that part of our environment that informs the spatial dialogue we pursue as motile beings. Promenade, mixing perception and imagination, is an act of meaning-building, needing the promeneur's "situation competency".
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The theoretical recognition of the role of movement in perception is a recent one. Yet sensitivity to movement is necessarily present in all spatial acts, as well as, although in an indirect, non-thematic way, in all descriptions of spatial acts. We can thus find it where most contemporary discourse on gardens would be less inclined to look for it - in texts on the so-called "French classical garden" written during the 17th and 18th century, such as theoretical treatises or descriptions of walks in the gardens of Versailles. Reading these texts, promenade appears as a spatio-temporal composition playing with all the senses - sight, hearing, smell, but also sense of movement and of orientation.
However, it is not lived as a simple succession of sensory impressions, but as a series of motivated, goal-oriented movements.
The garden is perceived as an juxtaposition of "spatial units", clearly delimited and structured, understood as such through the sensory continuities and discontinuities experienced during the promenade, the interwoven patterns of possible and constrained motions allowed by their physical forms, and the regularities that the motion revealed.
During their promenade, the visitors build their understanding of the complexe structure of the garden beyond the immediately perceptible scale, using the temporal succession of local spatial experiences and distant views allowed by the axes, together with the visual recognition of places already seen or visited, bodily memory of the path followed, and expectations which are in part culturally construed. Studying Versailles as a site for promenade, one encounters the richness and variety of the "morphological strategies" of the garden, that is, the modalities of appearance of the morphological meaning allowed by its physical shape.
The spatial polysemy of the garden, actualized through the motor and perceptual choices of the visitors, allows one to consider the "promenade" as a pre-predicative interpretative activity, based on situational intelligence. This is why it is possible to talk about the garden as an "open work" 4 , and "promenade" as an aesthetic quest of morphological intelligibility. Every promenade is an actualization of meaning, that is, a construction of spatial intelligibility, which shapes and completes the garden as a work of art, always and every time differently.
Word coined by J. Associate researcher at Cresson research group, France. When experimentation meets daily experience How to evaluate in situ the impact of audio announcements in a place of intense public use such as the underground? We recently addressed this issue in a research project 1 requested by RATP Company of Paris Undergournd that questioned the understanding of these auditory messages by passengers, in order to propose possible improvements. To this purpose, we implemented an inquiry method that combined daily experience and simulacrum, in order to collect the impressions of subway travellers when hearing the diffused sound messages.
Announcements were thus not solely evaluated in terms of their understanding, but also on their "practical effect", i. The simulacrum as a basic principle for a " situated simulation" Because of the impossibility to broadcast fictitious messages in the populated underground, we developed a protocol based on a principle of imitation in order to evaluate specific sound announcements in the subway.
We thus composed different sound messages that were listened by voluntary respondents in a Paris underground station, using for this a sound portable player. They were then invited to make sonic crossings, i. In order to properly integrate this message in the sonic environment of the survey situation, and thereby assess its reception as accurately as possible in a real situation, this message had to be staged.
Thus, a set of filters have been used to reach the broadcasting conditions of a metro station, characterized in particular by reverb due to the architectural specificities of the space and filtering due to audio diffusion equipment. This protocol allows the creation of an experimental situation for the reception and later evaluation of audio announcements, while enacting in the closest conditions to the reality of their environment. For this, it was particularly useful to propose the interviewees to hear the messages in motion through diverse sonic environments tunnels, platforms, escalators in order to: 1 avoid the careful listening facilitated by the technical instrumentation, and especially 2 stage a deeply transformed situation — and not just an idea of it.
Our observations point out the pragmatic effect of the protocol used. We indeed noticed a set of attitudes related to the emergence of these messages in situation: Modifying the focus of attention: on other people actions, on the movement, on "reliable" information i. These attitudes clearly show the potential effects of specific announcements and highlight thereby a key issue concerning situated information sonic, or any other kind : their ability to guide the body. Rapport de recherche. Dimension invisible personnelle ou collective?
Les odeurs nous jouent aussi des tours, nous surprennent et nous transportent ailleurs. Diffuser les messages odorants? Whiffs of Ambiances Every living being, every object, every place exhales a breath of molecules, a fragrant message intercepted by our olfactory lashes and interpreted by each of us , often without our knowing it. No need to sniff, we smell, the machine never stops.
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